There are millions of drivers passing through toll booths everyday. The conventional or the traditional way of collecting the toll from the vehicle owners or the drivers is to stop the car by the toll booth and then pay the amount to the toll collector standing (or perhaps sitting!) by the side of the toll booth, after which the gate is opened either mechanically or electronically for the driver to get through the toll station. This huge waste of time and traffic congestion created in the toll booth is what it makes us to think out of the basket.
There lies a huge investment that is done on the road construction and its maintenance; hence a minimum toll fee is collected even from a vehicle driver who has just traveled 4kms on the toll road or so. The other aspect of this is the toll collector who collects the toll fee from the vehicles. Sometimes owing to greediness he might collect more tolls or might let some cars to pass through for free. So in order to stop all these problems and inconvenience, we introduce an automated or a more convenient way of collecting the toll and traffic management. It’s called Electronic Toll Booth using RFID Technology.
Initially this project has a basic presumption that this project is implemented as a state project making it compulsory for all the vehicle owners to have a registered RFID Tag or a Transponder attached to their car’s windshield. During registration the owner need to submit these details to the RTO Office: (i) Driver’s / Owner’s name and address details. (ii) His cell phone no. and his email id. (iii) His car and License details with proof. With all these details, he has to maintain a prepaid toll account in the office.
So having all these as the prerequisite for the implementation of the project, we move ahead for the design of ‘Toll Booth’ or the ‘Toll Stations’.
The Booth consists of a RFID Reader (although we have RFID readers and Modules with a range of 30 -50ft, we confine our module requirements to 5-6cms.) which is installed at the starting point of the tolled road and then readers are installed on the road at a predetermined intervals till the endpoint. Here we take the interval as 5 Kms for the discussion. These RFID Readers are connected to the Controller Unit via RS232 interface; here the controller unit we use for the project is Microcontroller (either PIC series or 8051 series). The Microcontroller here works as the backbone controlling the database and signals obtained from the Readers and GSM Module.
Whenever a vehicle comes to the start point of the tolled road, as it passes the first RFID Reader, the Reader will pick up the code being transmitted by the RFID Tag attached to the car’s windshield in the form of electromagnetic waves. These waves are picked up by the Reader and then the code is processed and sent to the MU (Microcontroller Unit) via RS232 wired interface. The MU then separates the ID from the code received in the signal from the Reader, this Unique ID representing a car is then recorded by the MU and a counter is initiated to track the car (the counter time is predetermined by measuring the average time taken by the vehicle to travel from one booth to other). This counter counts to maximum until the car has reached the other booth. If a car hasn’t reached the second booth within the interval then there might be 3 reasons for this: (i) The vehicle or the car might have taken a diversion on the tolled road; so he must be either a localite or regular user to that location. (ii) The car might have faced some technical problems while traveling halfway. ( iii) The person driving the car might know the working of the Toll Booth, so he might think of fooling the system by waiting for a long time and then passing through the second toll to reduce the amount being deducted by the controlling unit. All these are exceptional cases where in the minimum specified amount is cut from the vehicles. After all we can’t invest 10 crores of rupees for tracking a few number of vehicles!
On the other hand, when car reaches the second toll, the tag is again read by the Reader and MU on comparing the ID obtained sees that the car is the same which passed the first toll booth a few mins ago and now a toll counter is initialized with value 2(since a car has passed 2 toll stations on the road!) by the MU. The counter which we initially spoke is made to reset and a fresh count is initialized. Now the car passes through the third toll booth and the counter becomes 3 and so on, now on reaching the final toll the amount to be deducted from the car’s account is calculated as:
Amount = Toll count x Minimum Toll fee specified
After deducting the money from the prepaid account maintained by the car owner, a SMS is sent to the driver saying the amount of deduction and the balance with some other alerts and services offered. The vehicle having no balance in its account and if it still passes through the toll then a heavy fine is levied with an alert and notice through mail and SMS!
SCOPE FOR FURTHER IMPROVEMENTS:
• Pressure sensors and IR sensors can be installed in addition to this to collect more tolls from heavy vehicles.
• Multiple lanes for cash and prepaid tolls for vehicles coming from other state.
• CCTV’s for security and tracking of vehicles.
• Fully automated and hence reduces human errors and investments.
• Traffic congestion is reduced enormously.
• Better Toll and Traffic management.
• Can be used for tracking vehicles for security purposes.
• Flexibility in technology and Implementation.
• Low power electronics.
• Offers and alerts could be given to all vehicles through SMS or EMAIL.
THE DATABASE MANAGEMENT OF CARS HAS BEEN DESIGNED AND ON UPGRADE PROCESS USING ORACLE PL/SQL...
Interested people can contact me
Prajwal Shetty D