It Is an Experiment to be done using MATLAB (Experiment 3.16 of the Textbook attached)
Background: As indicated in Figure 3.2, the waves take different amounts of
time in reaching the receiver as the signals follow different paths from a transmitter
to a receiver. Signal propagates through the open space following a path loss propagation given by Equation (3.4), and the exponent typically varies
between 3 and 4. It would be interesting to see how the signal strength varies
with distance. Also, as clear from the following figure showing the reflected ray
from the ground and the direct path, the difference in path length is a maximum
of two times hm when d = 0.
As it is not possible to control the signal propagation delay, the propagation
delay causes interference between successive symbols being transmitted by a
Therefore, it is easy to generalize that ISI (intersymbol interference) is a common
problem faced in any wireless and mobile system. It is typically observed
at the received [url removed, login to view] a wireless channel is used at high data transfer rates,
the symbols transmitted over the medium start interfering with each other.
The net affect observed at the wireless receiver is like noise. This wastes useful
bandwidth and forces the communicating entities to scale down the symbol
transmission rate. A good understanding of this fact helps in designing efficient
mechanisms to compensate for the errors at the receiving end.
Experimental Objective: In this experiment, students will get an in-depth
knowledge of variation of signal strength with distance from the BS and the
intersymbol interference. Different existing wireless and mobile systems have
different intersymbol interferences, which results in different compensation
algorithms. This experiment will help students to understand these different
interference compensation algorithms. The experiment is also useful to study
the compensation algorithms in a future wireless and mobile system in which
intersymbol interference is still a challenging problem.
Experimental Environment: An oscilloscope with signal transmitter.
1. The signal strength of electromagnetic wave decreases as it moves away from
the BS. This can be easily observed by students using either a simulation
framework or any hardware testbed.
2. All wireless channels become prone to ISI when the data transfer rate becomes
very high. Students will cause this phenomenon to occur in the laboratory
through a controlled increase of the data transfer rate and the distance of the
receiver for the wireless channel of specified frequency using signal transmitter.
3. Next, connect the transmitter to the oscilloscope and observe the “eye map”
that is displayed on the screen; change the signal rate and view the distortion
of the “eye map” caused by ISI.
4. Compare the effect of this phenomenon on both, wideband and narrowband
systems. Then apply the standard algorithms to recover from the errors.
5. Discuss the changes that will occur in the “eye map” with ISI, and how can ISI
6. Perform this experiment using MATLAB.
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