Using MATLAB to analyse a digital signal

It Is an Experiment to be done using MATLAB (Experiment 3.16 of the Textbook attached)

 Background: As indicated in Figure 3.2, the waves take different amounts of

time in reaching the receiver as the signals follow different paths from a transmitter

to a receiver. Signal propagates through the open space following a path loss propagation given by Equation (3.4), and the exponent typically varies

between 3 and 4. It would be interesting to see how the signal strength varies

with distance. Also, as clear from the following figure showing the reflected ray

from the ground and the direct path, the difference in path length is a maximum

of two times hm when d = 0.

As it is not possible to control the signal propagation delay, the propagation

delay causes interference between successive symbols being transmitted by a

single source.

Therefore, it is easy to generalize that ISI (intersymbol interference) is a common

problem faced in any wireless and mobile system. It is typically observed

at the received [url removed, login to view] a wireless channel is used at high data transfer rates,

the symbols transmitted over the medium start interfering with each other.

The net affect observed at the wireless receiver is like noise. This wastes useful

bandwidth and forces the communicating entities to scale down the symbol

transmission rate. A good understanding of this fact helps in designing efficient

mechanisms to compensate for the errors at the receiving end.



Experimental Objective: In this experiment, students will get an in-depth

knowledge of variation of signal strength with distance from the BS and the

intersymbol interference. Different existing wireless and mobile systems have

different intersymbol interferences, which results in different compensation

algorithms. This experiment will help students to understand these different

interference compensation algorithms. The experiment is also useful to study

the compensation algorithms in a future wireless and mobile system in which

intersymbol interference is still a challenging problem.

 Experimental Environment: An oscilloscope with signal transmitter.



Experimental Steps:

1. The signal strength of electromagnetic wave decreases as it moves away from

the BS. This can be easily observed by students using either a simulation

framework or any hardware testbed.

2. All wireless channels become prone to ISI when the data transfer rate becomes

very high. Students will cause this phenomenon to occur in the laboratory

through a controlled increase of the data transfer rate and the distance of the

receiver for the wireless channel of specified frequency using signal transmitter.

3. Next, connect the transmitter to the oscilloscope and observe the “eye map”

that is displayed on the screen; change the signal rate and view the distortion

of the “eye map” caused by ISI.

4. Compare the effect of this phenomenon on both, wideband and narrowband

systems. Then apply the standard algorithms to recover from the errors.

5. Discuss the changes that will occur in the “eye map” with ISI, and how can ISI

be avoided.

6. Perform this experiment using MATLAB.

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