Academic Writing - biology

Completed by October 15 next week!!~Notes: Although there is a minimum word count of 2,000 words, you will find that it is likely going to require far more words to fully answer the questions. You must list all of your sources in a Literature Cited section at the end of the exam. You may not copy or quote from any source. All information must be re-written in your own words.

Do not include the questions on your exams. Question 1: Climate (25 points)

Describe insolation (not insulation) and its influence on the distribution of ecosystems on Earth. Include in your answer: a. the reason for seasons.

b. the vertical structure of the atmosphere and its relationship to altitudinal distribution of life.

c. the protective functions of the atmosphere.

d. how insolation drives global circulation of air and water.

Question 2: Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways (25 points)

Describe the structures and functions of protein enzymes and the nature of the metabolic pathways they mediate. Include in your answer:

the structure of proteins and the particular nature of proteins important to enzyme action

the classes of enzymes and the reactions they mediate

the roles of coenzymes, cofactors and allosteric regulators

the nature of linear, branching, and cyclic metabolic pathways and their regulation

Question 3: Bioenergetics and Respiration (25 points)

Describe the production of pyruvate from sugar by glycolysis and pyruvate’s transfer to the mitochondrion where it is degraded to produce water and carbon dioxide coupled to the conversion of ATP during respiration. Describe metabolic pathways using glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle as examples and the role of the mitochondrion, its membranes and compartments in producing ATP. Include in your answer:

a. a description of bioenergetics and coupled reactions that drive metabolic pathways b. the processes and roles of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in respiration

c. a description of the role of the electron transport chain in producing ATP

Question 4: Fossil Cells and Evidence of Ancient Metabolisms (25 points)

Describe the sequence of appearance and the diversity of prokaryotic (Archaea and Eubacteria) and eukaryotic protists. Include in your answer:

a. the reasons we believe that the first cellular life forms were anaerobic heterotrophs

b. the general nature of prokaryotic metabolic evolution and the diversity early bacterial metabolic pathways

c. the role of endosymbiosis and the roles of the symbiotic partners (anaerobic host cell, mitochondrion, chloroplast) d. the evidence for the sequence of events shown in the fossil record during the evolution from the earliest life

forms to eukaryotic cells

Literature Cited

Following the essay Style Guide, list all sources used in writing your essay answers to the questions. Do not use in-text citations and do not use footnotes. Simply list your sources in this “Literature Cited” section. You must have a Literature Cited section with at least five references which you have used in preparing your answers: the course website, the eText and three additional sources. If you do not include a Literature Cited section, you will lose 10 points (2 points for each missing source). Be sure to include the Literature Cited section with your submission to Turnitin; you will not be able to re-submit if you forget.

Taidot: Tutkimusten kirjoitus, Tekninen kirjoittaminen

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